Journal of agricultural and food chemistry 2016 39
Insights into the Biogenic Amine Metabolic Landscape during Industrial Semidry Chinese Rice Wine Fermentation.
Inspired by concerns about food safety, the metabolic landscape of biogenic amines (BAs) was elucidated during industrial semidry Chinese rice wine fermentation. The main fermentation process represented the largest contribution to BA formation, which corresponded to 69.1% (54.3 mg/L). Principal component analysis revealed that total acid and ethanol were strongly correlated with BAs, indicating that BA formation favored acidic and stressful conditions. Other than putrescine (PUT), spermidine (SPD), and spermine (SPM), 5 BAs exhibited strong relationships with the precursor amino acids (R(2) > 0.85). PUT was mainly decarboxylated from arginine (89.6%) whereas SPD (100%) and SPM (83.1%) were obtained from ornithine. Interestingly, some SPD could convert back to PUT (24.3%). All 8 BAs showed good relationships with lactic acid bacteria (LAB) (R(2) around 0.75). Moreover, among the five main LAB genera, Lactobacillus had a positive correlation with BA formation.