Ecotoxicology and environmental safety 2016
The growth and uptake of Ga and In of rice (Oryza sative L.) seedlings as affected by Ga and In concentrations in hydroponic cultures.
Limited information is available on the effects of gallium (Ga) and indium (In) on the growth of paddy rice. The Ga and In are emerging contaminants and widely used in high-tech industries nowadays. Understanding the toxicity and accumulation of Ga and In by rice plants is important for reducing the effect on rice production and exposure risk to human by rice consumption. Therefore, this study investigates the effect of Ga and In on the growth of rice seedlings and examines the accumulation and distribution of those elements in plant tissues. Hydroponic cultures were conducted in phytotron glasshouse with controlled temperature and relative humidity conditions, and the rice seedlings were treated with different levels of Ga and In in the nutrient solutions. The growth index and the concentrations of Ga and In in roots and shoots of rice seedlings were measured after harvesting. A significant increase in growth index with increasing Ga concentrations in culture solutions (<10mgGaL(-1)) was observed. In addition, the uptake of N, K, Mg, Ca, Mn by rice plants was also enhanced by Ga. However, the growth inhibition were observed while the In concentrations higher than 0.08mgL(-1), and the nutrients accumulated in rice plants were also significant decreased after In treatments. Based on the dose-response curve, we observed that the EC10 (effective concentration resulting in 10% growth inhibition) value for In treatment was 0.17mgL(-1). The results of plant analysis indicated that the roots were the dominant sink of Ga and In in rice seedlings, and it was also found that the capability of translocation of Ga from roots to shoots were higher than In. In addition, it was also found that the PT10 (threshold concentration of phytotoxicity resulting in 10% growth retardation) values based on shoot height and total biomass for In were 15.4 and 10.6μgplant(-1), respectively. The beneficial effects on the plant growth of rice seedlings were found by the addition of Ga in culture solutions. In contrast, the In treatments led to growth inhibition of rice seedlings. There were differences in the phytotoxicity, uptake, and translocation of the two emerging contaminants in rice seedlings.