Plant biology (Stuttgart, Germany) 2006 5
Redox regulation and flower development: a novel function for glutaredoxins.
Glutaredoxins (GRXs) are small, ubiquitous oxidoreductases that have been intensively studied in E. COLI, yeast and humans. They are involved in a large variety of cellular processes and exert a crucial function in the response to oxidative stress. GRXs can reduce disulfides by way of conserved cysteines, located in conserved active site motifs. As in E. COLI, yeast, and humans, GRXs with active sites of the CPYC and CGFS type are also found in lower and higher plants, however, little has been known about their function. Surprisingly, 21 GRXs from ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA contain a novel, plant-specific CC type motif. Lately, information on the function of CC type GRXs and redox regulation, in general, is accumulating. This review focuses on recent findings indicating that GRXs, glutathione and redox regulation, in general, seem to be involved in different processes of development, so far, namely in the formation of the flower. Recent advances in EST and genome sequencing projects allowed searching for the presence of the three different types of the GRX subclasses in other evolutionary informative plant species. A comparison of the GRX subclass composition from PHYSCOMITRELLA, PINUS, ORYZA, POPULUS, and ARABIDOPSIS is presented. This analysis revealed that only two CC type GRXs exist in the bryophyte PHYSCOMITRELLA and that the CC type GRXs group expanded during the evolution of land plants. The existence of a large CC type subclass in angiosperms supports the assumption that their capability to modify target protein activity posttranslationally has been integrated into crucial plant specific processes involved in higher plant development.