Genetic and Evolutionary Analysis of Purple Leaf Sheath in Rice.

Chin, HS; Wu, YP; Hour, AL; Hong, CY; Lin, YR

Rice (New York, N.Y.) 2016 1

PMID: 26922355

Genetic and Evolutionary Analysis of Purple Leaf Sheath in Rice.

BACKGROUND: Anthocyanin accumulates in many plant tissues or organs, in rice for example leading to red, purple red and purple phenotypes for protection from damage by biotic and abiotic stresses and for reproduction. Purple leaf, leaf sheath, stigma, pericarp, and apiculus are common in wild rice and landraces and occasionally found in modern cultivars. No gene directly conferring anthocyanin deposited in a purple leaf sheath has yet been isolated by using natural variants. An F2 population derived from ssp. japonica cv. Tainung 72 (TNG72) with purple leaf sheath (PSH) crossed with ssp. indica cv. Taichung Sen 17 (TCS17) with green leaf sheath (GSH) was utilized to isolate a gene conferring leaf sheath color. RESULTS: By positional cloning, 10-and 3-bp deletions in the R2R3 Myb domain of OsC1 were uncovered in GSH varieties TCS17 and Nipponbare, respectively. Allelic diversity, rather than gene expression levels of OsC1, might be responsible for anthocyanin accumulation. Parsimony-based analysis of genetic diversity in 50 accessions, including cultivars, landraces, and A-genome wild rice, suggests that independent mutation occurred in Asian, African, South American, and Australian species, while O. meridionalis had a divergent sequence. OsC1 was thought of as a domestication related gene, with up to 90 % reduction of genetic diversity in GSH; however, no values from three tests showed significant differences from neutral expectations, implying that OsC1 had not been subjected to recent selection. Haplotype network analysis revealed that species from different continents formed unique haplotypes with no gene flow. Two major groups of haplotypes corresponding to 10-bp deletion and other sequences were formed in Asian rice, including O. rufipogon, O. nivara and O. sativa. Introgressions of OsC1 between subspecies through natural and artificial hybridization were not rare. Because artificial and natural selection imposed admixture on rice germplasm in Taiwan, the genealogy of OsC1 might not be congruent with the current distribution of alleles through lineage diversification. CONCLUSION: OsC1 is responsible for purple leaf sheath, and much new information about OsC1 is provided e.g., new alleles, non-domestication syndrome, and incongruence of genealogy with geographic distribution.