The Oryza sativa Regulator HDR1 Associates with the Kinase OsK4 to Control Photoperiodic Flowering.

Sun, X; Zhang, Z; Wu, J; Cui, X; Feng, D; Wang, K; Xu, M; Zhou, L; Han, X; Gu, X; Lu, T

PLoS genetics 2016 3

PMID: 26954091

The Oryza sativa Regulator HDR1 Associates with the Kinase OsK4 to Control Photoperiodic Flowering.

Rice is a facultative short-day plant (SDP), and the regulatory pathways for flowering time are conserved, but functionally modified, in Arabidopsis and rice. data-tid='1289' href='#term-1289'>Heading date 1 (Hd1), an ortholog of Arabidopsis CONSTANS (CO), is a key regulator that suppresses flowering under long-day conditions (LDs),id='1293' href='#term-1293'>' href='#term-1292'>ata-tid='1291' href='#term-1291'> but promotes flowerief='#term-1295'>ng under short-day conditions (SDs) by influencing the expression of the florigen gene Heading date 3a (Hd3a). Another key regulator, Early heading date 1 (Ehd1), is an evolutionarily unique gene with no orthologs in Arabidopsis, which acts as a flowering activator under both SD and LD by promoting the rice florigen genes Hd3a and RICE FLOWERING LOCUST 1 (RFT1). Here, we report the isolation and characterization of the flowering regulator Heading Date Repressor1 (HDR1) in rice. The hdr1 mutant exhibits an early flowering phenotype 'term' data-tid='1299' href='#term-1299'>term-1298'>id='1297' href='#term-1297'>under natural LD in a paddy field in Beijing, -1302'>d='1301' href='#term-1301'>China (39°54'N, 116°23'E), as well as under LD but not SD in a growth chamber, indicating that HDR1 may functionally regulate flowering time via the photoperiod-dependent pathway. HDR1 encodes a nuclear protein that is most active in leaves and floral organs and exhibits a typical diurnal expression pattern. We determined that HDR1 is a novel suppressor of flowering that upregulates Hd1 and downregulates Ehd1, leading to the downregulation of Hd3a and RFT1 under LDs. We have further identified an HDR1-interacting kinase, OsK4, another suppressor of rice flowering under LDs. OsK4 acts similarly to HDR1, suppressing flowering by upregulating Hd1 and downregulating Ehd1 under LDs, and OsK4 can phosphorylate HD1 with HDR1 presents. These results collectively reveal the transcriptional regulators of Hd1 for the day-length-dependent control of flowering time in rice.