Origin and diversification of land plant CC-type glutaredoxins.

Ziemann, M; Bhave, M; Zachgo, S

Genome biology and evolution 2009

PMID: 20333196

Origin and diversification of land plant CC-type glutaredoxins.

Glutaredoxins (GRXs) are ubiquitous glutathione-dependent oxidoreductase enzymes implicated in redox homeostasis, particularly oxidative stress response. Three major classes of GRX genes exist, the CPYC, CGFS classes are present in all pro- and eukaryote species, whereas the CC-type class GRXs are specific to land plants. In the basal land plant Physcomitrella patens, only two CC-type GRXs are present, compared with 21 in Arabidopsis. In contrast, sizes of the CPYC and CGFS classes remained rather similar throughout plant evolution, raising the interesting question as to when the CC-type GRXs first originated and how and why they expanded during land plant evolution. Recent evidence suggests that CC-type GRXs may have been recruited during evolution into diverse plant-specific functions of flower development (ROXY1, ROXY2) and pathogenesis response (ROXY19/GRX480). In the present study, GRX genes from the genomes of a range of green algae and evolutionarily diverse land plant species were identified; Ostreococcus, Micromonas, Volvox, Selaginella, Vitis, Sorghum, and Brachypodium. Previously identified sequences from Chlamydomonas, Physcomitrella, Oryza, Arabidopsis, and Populus were integrated to generate a more comprehensive understanding of the forces behind the evolution of various GRX classes. The analysis indicates that the CC-type GRXs probably arose by diversification from the CPYC class, at a time coinciding with colonization of land by plants. This strong differential expansion of the CC-type class occurred exclusively in the angiosperms, mainly through paleopolyploidy duplication events shortly after the monocot-eudicot split, and more recently through multiple tandem duplications that occurred independently in five investigated angiosperm lineages. The presented data suggest that following duplications, subfunctionalization, and subsequent neofunctionalization likely facilitated the sequestration of land plant-specific CC-type GRXs into novel functions such as development and pathogenesis response.