Biochemical and molecular responses underlying differential arsenic tolerance in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

Begum, MC; Islam, MS; Islam, M; Amin, R; Parvez, MS; Kabir, AH

Plant physiology and biochemistry : PPB 2016

PMID: 27061371

Biochemical and molecular responses underlying differential arsenic tolerance in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

The arsenic (As) is a toxic element causing major health concern worldwide. Arsenate stress caused no significant reduction in growth parameters and shoot electrolyte leakage but showed increased root arsenate reductase activity along with relatively lower root As content and shoot translocation rate in As-tolerant BRRI 33 than in As-sensitive BRRI 51. It indicates that As inhibition and tolerance mechanisms are driven by root responses. Interestingly, As stress showed consistent decrease in phosphate content and expression of phosphate transporters (s='term' data-tid='1105' href='#term-1105'>s='term' data-tid='1104' href='#term-1104'>OsPT8, OsPT4, OsPHO1;2) under both high and low phosphate conditions in roots of BRRI 33, suggesting that limiting phosphate transport mainly mediated by OsPHO1;2 directs less As accumulation in BRRI 33. Further, BRRI 33 showed simultaneous increase in OsPCS1 (phytochelatin synthase) expression and phytochelatins (PCs) content in roots under As exposure supporting the hypothesis that root As sequestration acts as 'firewall system' in limiting As translocation in shoots. Furthermore, increased CAT, POD, SOD, GR, along with elevated glutathione, methionine, cysteine and proline suggests that strong antioxidant defense plays integral part to As tolerance in BRRI 33. Again, BRRI 33 self-grafts and plants having BRRI 33 rootstock combined with BRRI 51 scion had no adverse effect on morphological parameters but showed reduced As translocation rate, increased root arsenate reductase activity, shoot PC synthesis and root OsPHO1;2 expression due to As stress. It confirms that signal driving As tolerance mechanisms is generated in the roots. These findings can be implemented for As detoxification and As-free transgenic rice production for health safety.